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Roof Repair & Restore

The Upper Cumberland's Only Certified GAF Master Elite. With over 30 years of experience, GAF certified MasterElite Robert Smith will make your roofing project go smoothly.

We Install Lifetime Weather Stopper Roofing Systems. The right tools and equipment, personnel and experience make A Cut Above Custom Roofing a local leader in the roofing industry.

Just because your roof has a leak doesn’t necessarily mean you need a new one. Our repairs will outlast the rest of the roof and are fully guaranteed.

Your roof has an issue and you need it repaired. You've heard horror stories about roofing companies taking hours longer than promised, not guaranteeing the work and not even fixing the problem correctly. It's sad, but true. Most roofing companies only want to sell you a new roof because, "That's where the money is." It's a shame how many good people are talked into prematurely replacing their roof when it's not needed.

Metal Roof Repair & Restore

Designed as a mansard roof system and used throughout the world, interlocking metal roof systems have a combination of qualities. Their hidden fastener and clip design provides high wind resistance and low maintenance. As one of the longest lasting roof systems they are usually installed on poor access roof areas.


 
Slipping: Delaminating / Sliding

Interlocking Metal Panels are coming unclipped and sliding. This is caused by improper fastening. They are designed to be fastened in a specific area, increasing wind resistance and ensuring that both sides of the panel are attached to the roof. Without lifting up every panel and breaking the clips, it's impossible to tell if the problem is consistent throughout the entire roof or just the areas visible. Generally, if the roof was installed by the same crew or person, the problem is consistent. There's a good possibility this roof will continue to experience this problem in the future, especially after high wind events.

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Torn/Cracked/Broken
Torn/Cracked/Broken Surface

As a roof expands and contracts the roof system moves. This is a daily occurrence and is associated with Thermal Shock. During movement the metal panels bind against each other. Sometimes a tree branch or flying debris may impact the roof causing damage. 3rd party damage is another issue. As people walk across the roof they can cause damage. The metal panels on this Naples roof have been damaged. Since this leaves the underlayment showing, it is our recommendation these areas are repaired.

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Roof Recovered
Roof Recovered

A Cut Above does not recommend recovering roof systems. Some Roofers will advise consumers to simply install wood strips over the existing roof and install the new system on the wood batons. This causes trapped moisture and over time the original roof system will "bake", causing rapid deterioration.

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Offset Not Correct
Offset Not Correct

Metal panels are not a waterproofing material. When installed correctly, they do "shed" water. However, if installed on a flat roof, they would allow massive seepage. The way metal panels work is by their overlapping design. As the previous layer is covered by the next it creates a stair step water shed design, disallowing seepage. This stair step design also has a vertical component to it. If each row is not offset correctly, water may enter the system.

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Improper Number of Fasteners

Metal is designed to be installed using special self-sealing screws. Each metal panel has a designated uplift and manufactures specify exactly how many fasteners per square foot are required. If metal panels are fastened outside the specifications the manufacturer's warranty is voided and the roof assembly is out of code. This also leaves the roof susceptible to roof blow-off in the event of strong winds. After Hurricane Andrew in 1992 our code system was completely redesigned. In 1994, when this new code system was introduced, the requirement was increased. However, most of the good roofing contractors still install extra fasteners in order to achieve the enhanced wind resistance.

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Improper Fastener Installation
Improper Fastener Installation

It is important that all fasteners are installed perpendicular to the roof's surface and driven in at a perfect 90 degree angle. On this Bonita Springs roof are areas where the fasteners were not driven straight in and the fastener heads are lifted slightly. Over time this can and will damage the roof system and allow seepage.

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Improper Type Fastener
Improper Fastener Type

When two different types of metals come in contact a chemical reaction occurs: Electrolysis uses moisture as catalysis at a molecular level to pass ions from one metal to the other. The process causes a deterioration of both metals similar to the effects of rust. Using the wrong type of fasteners causes a real concern due to the importance of the fastener itself. Electrolysis causes the fastener puncture to deteriorate and widen, allowing a water path and seepage. Incompatible fastener types were used and electrolysis is occurring.

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Uplifting Fasteners
Fasteners Uplifting

"High fasteners" are a serious problem. During roof installation it's easy for installers to forget about proper pressure setting on their screw guns. In most cases too many drills were hooked up to a single electrical line that was not sufficient to drive each fastener fully. At time of installation only the severe "high screws" are noticeable. Over time, expansion and contraction causes the screws to uplift. "High fasteners" begin to lift allowing a place for water to run into and under the system. Rusting and seepage can occur.

The most susceptible area on a roof to wind damage is the cap. Cap flashings are used to cover the hip and ridge areas of two adjoining decks. Most installers see this area as a simple trip piece and do not install enough fasteners to hold in place during a strong wind event. This should be replaced as the sun is now deteriorating the roof's underlayment and water is able to travel directly under the metal panels.

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Flat Tie-In not Sealed Properly
Flat Tie-In not Sealed Properly

The junction between your pitch roof and the flat roof is called the "tie-in". This area is specifically important because there are two different roofing materials joining. A Marcos Island roof shows evidence that the tie-in area is not sealed properly. It is also very important that the two roof systems have the correct flashing detail and extra sealant protection.

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Backwater Laps
Backwater Laps

When installing a roof system it is important to always start at the lowest point and proceed upward toward the roof's peak. This ensures that each layer of materials overlaps the previous. Even on flat roofs, this principle is important. As water travels, on a pitch or on a flat roof, if two seams are lapped in backwards a backwater lap occurs. This can "cup" water and force in under the layers, causing leaks.

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Flashing Rusting
Flashing Rusting

Steel metal flashings exposed to the elements can rust over time. Today's flashings are made of galvanized metal, a process that protects the steel core from rusting. Rust cannot be simply sealed over, as it will continue to grow. The rust needs to be cut out and a new flashing installed, then sealed properly. Since the rust is open to the surface and flashings are vital to the integrity of the roof system, we suggest repairing the rusted flashing areas before seepage causes structural damage.

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No Sealant at Flashings
No Sealant at Flashings

Although flashings bridge transitions in the roof, when not sealed properly they are ineffective. Flashing is designed to turn corners and breaks in a roof, which tend to have more movement than other areas. If not sealed properly, these flashings do little to stop water from entering the roof system. Here are voids in the roof’s flashings where sealants were not applied correctly. This is allowing water to enter the flashing detail area. This can be repaired with minimal expense.

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Valley Metal Buckling
Valley Metal Buckling

Valley metal is installed by crimping the valley center, fastening the entire length of both edges and then applying mastic to cover the valley metal edge and fasteners. When valley metal is not properly pressed, fastened and/or sealed it causes buckling and waving. Since a valley is designed to channel water between two pitch areas a valley receives more water flow than any other part of the roof. Valley metal buckling disrupts the immediate flow of water and creates water vortices, a circular flow of water that leads to roof seepage.

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Gable end flashing
Gable End Flashing Not Correct

Gable ends are where a valley terminates into a roof's surface, rather than running the entire length to the roof's edge. They are quite common and add to the roof's design. However, if not correctly detailed with flashings and sealants, the gable end is an area of concern. With the valley channeling large amounts of water to the gable end area there is an increased chance of seepage. In fact, it is A Cut Above Roofing's #1 repair area on all roof systems. Adding more sealant may stop the seepage for a year or so, but the only correct way to fix this area is by removing the flashings and installing them correctly. This will minimize the dependence on sealants, which will deteriorate over time.

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Boot lapped/sealed correctly
Boot Lapped/Sealed Correctly

Steel metal flashings exposed to the elements can rust over time. Today's flashings are made of galvanized metal, a process that protects the steel core from rusting. I found rusted flashings on this Fort Myers Beach roof. Rust cannot be simply sealed over, as it will continue to grow. The rust needs to be cut out and a new flashing installed, then sealed properly. Since the rust is open to the surface and flashings are vital to the integrity of your roof system, we suggest repairing the rusted flashing areas before seepage causes structural damage.

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Vent not lapped/sealed correctly
Vent Not Lapped/Sealed Correctly

As with all rooftop objects it is important that proper water flow and installation are considered. Flashing that is not layered correctly and sealant applied in the right junction areas allow water seepage. The vent flange on this roof was not installed correctly with the proper overlap procedure. Sealant has done a good job covering up the installation error, but is now showing signs of deterioration. Adding sealant may prevent seepage temporarily but is not a roof cycle solution. The vent should be replaced and installed correctly.

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Plastic Boots Used
Plastic Boots Used

As you know, plastic typically dries out rather quickly in our environment. The sun's UV rays cause oil migration much the same as it does to exposed asphalt. On this Estero roof a plastic stack flashing was used to seal the pipe. A gap between the pipe and surrounding flashing is visible and allowing seepage. This boot should be removed and replaced with a new lead boot.

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Ell Flashing not sealed properly
Ell Flashing Not Sealed Properly

Ell flashing bridges the transition from the roof's surface and a wall or upright surface such as a curb. On this Captiva Island roof the ell flashing has not been sealed properly and the shingles are pealing back from the flashing allowing seepage. This can be correctly by removing the area and installing mastic sealant correctly. New membrane may need to be installed in this area. Also, if the ell flashing cannot be cleaned or has too many old fastener holes in it, the entire flashings detail area may need to be replaced.

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No ell flashing installed
No Ell Flashing Installed

Whenever a roof surface meets a vertical surface ell flashing is needed to bridge the transition and protect from seepage. On an Immokalee roof I found no ell flashing was installed at this detail. Although sealant may have helped avoid leaks, over time sealant breaks down. The correct technique is to install ell flashing here.

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Ell Flashing uplifting
Ell Flashing Uplifting

Ell flashing should be nailed every six inches on center. Not enough fasteners were used and the sealant has deteriorated. We suggest sealing the underside of the ell flashing and installing the correct number of fasteners as specified by code. On this Fort Myers roof another layer of membrane should be installed to cover the ell-flashing flange and provide a more aesthetically pleasing transition area.

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Ell Flashing Behind Wall Surface
Ell Flashing Behind Wall Surface

Ell flashing is designed to bridge the roof to wall transition and allow for protection against water intrusion. Water which runs down the roof and wall is caught by the ell flashing and channeled to the roof's edge. It is important that the ell flashing's end be flared so it sticks out past the siding/stucco. On this Captiva Island roof the installers did not flare the flange end and it terminates behind the siding/stucco. This provides a direct path for water to flow behind the wall surface and into the building. Often this type of leak takes time to show and may only be noticeable in heavy rains and the wall needs to soak enough to be evident. The only correct way to repair this issue is to add a layer of membrane over the existing flashing that directs water flow out and away from the wall. Some roofers may suggest cutting out the old flashings and installing new. We do not suggest this, as it is impossible to replace the wall surfacing material and regain integrity.

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Fasteners In The Valley

Since a valley is designed to channel water between two pitch areas a valley receives more water flow than any other part of the roof. A standard installation guideline on all roof systems is to never install fasteners in the valley's center. Exposed valley fasteners disrupt the immediate flow of water. Because valleys are transition areas and absorb building movement, fasteners installed in the valley center uplift and allow water seepage. The only way to properly repair this issue is by replacing the valley flashing.

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Flashing seams separating
Flashing Seams Separating

Flashing seams must be overlapped correctly and an adequate amount of sealant placed in between the overlap area to ensure proper waterproofing at the ell flashing transition area. The correct way to repair this area is to replace the flashing with new. That is the only way to ensure the flashing detail area will not leak.

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No wall cap/coupling
No Wall Cap/Coupling

Separation firewalls are designed to extend past the roof level and protect against spreading flames in the unlikely event of a fire. Many times these walls are simply stuccoed and painted. Over time the paint deteriorates, often at rates faster than walls due to the direct sunlight they receive, and allow moisture to seep into the wall's core. Under a maintenance program these wall caps can be coated using an elastomeric paint sealant. Other times it is best to use some type of wall cap to permately protect the wall top area. When moisture enters the wall it causes moisture bleed out and swelling. The additional moisture content is trapped and cannot evaporate causing further damages to fasteners, flashings and framing. The swelling can rust out concrete rebar and steel straps, both structural components of the wall. The correct way to fix this is to teat the wall top as a roof and install a roof system on it. This can be achieved by installing a metal coupling or a flat roof membrane with flashing on all four sides of the wall's top. The flat roof membrane is a better detail as it provides one continuous piece and protection without added maintenance.

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Off Ridge Vents not Angled

Vents are installed on the roof to allow for attic airflow. These vents should not be longer than four feet in length and should be installed at an angle. As water flows down the roof it often is blocked behind the vent creating a small area of water ponding. Ponding water is water sitting on any asphalt roofing material longer than 48 hours without run-off or evaporation. As the water sits it magnifies the sun's rays and works on breaking down the sealant and underlayment used to seal the vent to the roof. The correct way to fix this issue is to install a new vent.

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Pitch Transition not flashed
Pitch Transition not Flashed

Whenever two different roof pitches transition a specially designed flashing is needed to bridge the slope change. Over time the sealant will deteriorate and allow leaks. The pitch transition on your roof does not have any flashing in it. Eventually the roofing materials and mastic used to seal this area will cause interior damages.

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Counter flashing loose
Counter Flashing Loose

Counter flashing is metal flashing installed into the wall to protect the roof membrane from coming loose from the wall as it transitions from the roof area. Counter flashing can also be used in conjunction with ell flashing at the same detail area. On a Bonita Springs roof the counter flashing, which has a concealed return flashing cut and installed into the wall, has come loose from the wall and is allowing water to enter. Counter flashing is an older flashing technique and requires constant maintenance by re-fastening and re-sealing the top wall cut to disallow seepage. This area should be repaired before interior damage occurs.

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Fair/Unfair Metals Touching
Fair/Unfair Metals Touching

When two different types of metals, fair and unfair as they are called, come in contact a chemical reaction occurs. Electrolysis uses moisture as catalysis at a molecular level to pass ions from one metal to the other. The process causes a deterioration of both metals similar to the effects of rust. Using two different types of metal causes electrolysis and the rapid breakdown of metal.

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Pan Roof Tie-In not correct
Pan Roof Tie-In not Correct

Vents are installed on the roof to allow for attic airflow. These vents should not be longer than four feet in length and should be installed at an angle. As water flows down the roof it often is blocked behind the vent creating a small area of water ponding. Ponding water is water sitting on any asphalt roofing material longer than 48 hours without run-off or evaporation. As the water sits it magnifies the sun's rays and works on breaking down the sealant and underlayment used to seal the vent to the roof. The correct way to fix this issue is to install a new vent. These vents were not installed with the correct angle and water is ponding behind them.

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Drip Edge with Flat Shelf
Drip Edge with Flat Shelf

Often associated with gutter installation and plumb fascia boards, perimeter drip edge flashings can create a shelf or ledge about three inches from the roofs edge. This shelf creates a flat roof area at the roof's perimeter. Since this roof system is not a flat roof, the perimeter flashings are not designed to allow for sitting water. During light rains and morning dew water seeps under the roof system and deteriorates the perimeter decking sub-fascia board and fascia board. This can be resealed as a temporary fix, but should be replaced for a more germinate measure.

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Tile Roof Repair & Restore

Tile roofs are beautiful and hold up well in our sub-tropical environment. However, as a natural product they do require maintenance, a completely different installation method and care. We find that too many roofers simply rely on sealant to waterproof areas and don't install the proper flashings. Below are the most common tile roof issue areas.

Tile Repair and Restore Overview


Sliding / Slipping
Slipping: Delaminating / Sliding

Tile roofs with a #30lb.felt paper base and a #90lb.hot asphalt installed underlayment system is installed and the tiles adhered using mortar add extra weight to the system. During our hot months the roof temperature rises above 160 degrees softening up the asphalt adhesive. With the extra tile weight and without enough fasteners to hold the tiles to the deck cause the roof system to slide, especially on high-pitched roofs. There is no way to repair this issue. However, it is a sign that replacement is near.

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Fasteners
Improper Number of Fasteners

Tiles are designed to be installed using special stainless steel screw, as per code. Each tile has two predrilled screw holes. If a wide screw or nail is used it will crack the tile. This also leaves the roof susceptible to roof blow-off in the event of strong winds. After Hurricane Andrew in 1992 our code system was completely redesigned. In 1994, when this new code system was introduced, the requirement is now 1 screw per tile, except for the first row, which requires two screws or a fully certified adhesive. However, most of the good roofing contractors install 1 screw per tile and in order to achieve the enhanced wind performance add tile adhesive to each tile.

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Fasteners Uplifting
Fasteners Uplifting

"High nails" were found from the roof system's underlayment. During roof installation it's easy for installers to forget about proper pressure setting on their nail guns. In most cases too many nailers are hooked up to a low volume compressor and the air supply is not sufficient to drive each fastener fully. At time of installation only the severe "high nails" are noticeable. "High nails" begin to protrude and lift tiles causing an increased wind uplift point and breaking tiles. Rusting and seepage can occur.

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Backwater Laps
Backwater Laps

When installing a roof system it is important to always start at the lowest point and proceed upward toward the roof's peak. This ensures that each layer of materials overlaps the previous. Even on flat roofs, this principle is important. As water travels, on a pitch or on a flat roof, if two seams are lapped in backwards a backwater lap occurs. This can "cup" water and force in under the layers, causing leaks.

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Valley Metal Buckling
Valley Metal Buckling

Valley metal is installed by crimping the valley center, fastening the entire length of both edges and then applying mastic to cover the valley metal edge and fasteners. When valley metal is not properly pressed, fastened and/or sealed it causes buckling and waving. Since a valley is designed to channel water between two pitch areas a valley receives more water flow than any other part of the roof. Valley metal buckling disrupts the immediate flow of water and creates water vortices, a circular flow of water that leads to roof seepage.

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Vent not lapped/sealed correctly
Vent Not Lapped/Sealed Correctly

As with all rooftop objects it is important that proper water flow and installation are considered. Flashing that is not layered correctly and sealant applied in the right junction areas allow water seepage. The vent flange was not installed correctly with the proper overlap procedure. Sealant has done a good job covering up the installation error on this Naples roof, but is now showing signs of deterioration. Adding sealant may prevent seepage temporarily but is not a roof cycle solution. The vent should be replaced and installed correctly.

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No ell flashing installed
No Ell Flashing Installed

Whenever a roof surface meets a vertical surface ell flashing is needed to bridge the transition and protect from seepage. No ell flashing was installed at this detail. Although sealant may have helped avoid leaks, over time sealant breaks down. The correct technique is to install ell flashing here.

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Fasteners in the valley
Fasteners In The Valley

Since a valley is designed to channel water between two pitch areas a valley receives more water flow than any other part of the roof. A standard installation guideline on all roof systems is to never install fasteners in the valley's center. Exposed valley fasteners disrupt the immediate flow of water. Because valleys are transition areas and absorb building movement, fasteners installed in the valley center uplift and allow water seepage. The only way to properly repair this issue is by replacing the valley flashing.

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Off ridge vent
Off Ridge Vents not Angled

Vents are installed on the roof to allow for attic airflow. These vents should not be longer than four feet in length and should be installed at an angle. As water flows down the roof it often is blocked behind the vent creating a small area of water ponding. Ponding water is water sitting on any asphalt roofing material longer than 48 hours without run-off or evaporation. As the water sits it magnifies the sun's rays and works on breaking down the sealant and underlayment used to seal the vent to the roof. The correct way to fix this issue is to install a new vent.

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Fair/Unfair Metals Touching
Fair/Unfair Metals Touching

When two different types of metals, fair and unfair as they are called, come in contact a chemical reaction occurs. Electrolysis uses moisture as catalysis at a molecular level to pass ions from one metal to the other. The process causes a deterioration of both metals similar to the effects of rust. Using two different types of metal causes electrolysis and the rapid breakdown of metal.

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Tile mortar cap loose
Tile Mortar Cap Loose

A tile roof's cap tiles are installed and held in place by a few different techniques. After general installation mortar cement is used to "point-up" the tile sides and enclose the gaps. This cement is either dyed using oxide during installation or painted using a concrete stain. Over time movement causes the mortar to break loose from the cap tiles. Since mortar does not self-heal it continues to separate. If mortar is the only attachment method the cap tiles are help by gravity alone once the bond is fully broken. Here cap tiles separated from the mortar and are loose. In a storm these would easily blow off and could cause damage to the roof, building and/or surrounding buildings.

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Tile Cap in Valley
Tile Cap in Valley

To help improve the aesthetic look of tile roofs specifies occasionally request cap tiles to be installed down the valley area. Tile manufacturers have released technical bulletins warning of issues arising from this practice. When cap tiles are installed in the valley area moisture is trapped and not allowed to flow properly causing underlayment deterioration and flashing rust. Although not worth the time and money to proactively remove, when repairs are made to the valley, the cap tile should not be replaced.

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Not All Tiles Are Fastened

For a period of time the tile industry allowed a reduced fastening pattern in an effort to complete against asphalt shingles, which offered an impressive look and has an increased useful life. During this time many roofs were installed with very few fasteners. One manufacturer's specifications required one nail every fifth (5th) row at each third (3rd) tile. Of course with the failures tile roofs endured after Florida's hurricane activity specifications have changed. However, some roofers still use the old method citing the tile's weight as sufficient down-force. Today's code requires screws, not nails. Specially bonded mortar and tile adhesive polyurethane are also approved fastening methods.

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Lead Flashings
TLead Flashings On A Tile Roof

Lead flashings are used to redirect water from under the system back up and on top of the tiles. This is considered "Western Style" roofing where they don't get the rain amounts we get here. The principle is that the tile won't allow water under the system. However, as you can imagine, our normal summer rains are torrential and force water between all the tile cracks. On tile roof systems the underlayment is the waterproofing barrier and are required by code for this reason. Lead flashings were added during this roof's installation as part of the opinion that the tile actually stops water and the lead is used at flashing areas to redirect water flow. Since the underlayment is not fully adhered, it is important to keep these flashings sealed to help prevent seepage.

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Tiles Sliding Off Roof

Tile roofs with a #30lb.felt paper base and a #90lb. hot asphalt installed underlayment system is installed and the tiles adhered using mortar add extra weight to the system. During our hot months the roof temperature rises above 160 degrees softening up the asphalt adhesive. With the extra tile weight without fasteners to hold the tiles to the deck cause the roof system to slide, especially on high-pitched roofs. This system is sliding as evident by looking at the perimeter edge. There is no way to repair this issue. However, it is a sign that replacement is near.

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Torn, Cracked, Broken
Torn/Cracked/Broken Surface

As a roof expands and contracts the roof system moves. This is a daily occurrence and is associated with Thermal Shock. During movement the tiles bind against each other. Sometimes a tree branch or flying debris may impact the roof causing damage. 3rd party damage is another issue. As people walk across the roof they can cause damage. The Tiles on this Estero roof have been damaged. Since this leaves the underlayment showing, it is our recommendation these areas are repaired.

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Improper Fastener Installation
Improper Fastener Installation

It is important that all fasteners are installed perpendicular to the roof's surface and driven in at a perfect 90 degree angle. As seen on this Fort Myers Beach roof, here are areas where the fasteners were not driven straight in and the fastener heads are lifted slightly. Over time this can and will damage the roof system and allow seepage.

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Blown Off Cap
Blown Off Cap

The most susceptible area on a roof to wind damage is the cap. Cap tiles are used to cover the hip and ridge areas of two adjoining decks. Most installers simply use a mortar cement to hold down the cap tiles to save money. Over time movement causes the mortar to break loose from the cap tiles. Since mortar does not self-heal it continues to separate. If mortar is the only attachment method the cap tiles are help by gravity alone once the bond is fully broken. This Sanibel Island roof is missing cap tile. When it is time to replace the roof ask your contractor to use a special ridge anchor flashing to hold the cap tile in place with fasteners and mortar. This will help prevent the cap tiles from blowing off.

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Flashing Rusting
Flashing Rusting

Steel metal flashings exposed to the elements can rust over time. Today's flashings are made of galvanized metal, a process that protects the steel core from rusting. Rust cannot be simply sealed over, it will continue to grow, as seen on this Captiva Island roof. The rust needs to be cut out and a new flashing installed, then sealed properly. Since the rust is open to the surface and flashings are vital to the integrity of your roof system, we suggest repairing the rusted flashing areas before seepage causes structural damage.

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Gable End Flashing Not Correct
Gable End Flashing Not Correct

Gable ends are where a valley terminates into a roof's surface, rather than running the entire length to the roof's edge. They are quite common and add to the roof's design. However, if not correctly detailed with flashings and sealants, the gable end is an area of concern. With the valley channeling large amounts of water to the gable end area there is an increased chance of seepage. In fact, it is A Cut Above Roofing's #1 repair area on all roof systems. Adding more sealant may stop the seepage for a year or so, but the only correct way to fix this area is by removing the flashings and installing them correctly. This will minimize the dependence on sealants, which will deteriorate over time.

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Plastic Boot Used
Plastic Boots Used

As you know, plastic typically dries out rather quickly in our environment. The sun's UV rays cause oil migration much the same as it does to exposed asphalt. On this Fort Myers roof a plastic stack flashing was used to seal the pipe. A gap between the pipe and surrounding flashing is visible and allowing seepage. This boot should be removed and replaced with a new lead boot.

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Ell Flashing uplifting
Ell Flashing Uplifting

Ell flashing should be nailed every six inches on center. Not enough fasteners were used and the sealant has deteriorated. We suggest sealing the underside of the ell flashing and installing the correct number of fasteners as specified by code. Another layer of membrane should be installed to cover the ell-flashing flange and provide a more aesthetically pleasing transition area.

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Flashing seams separating
Flashing Seams Separating

Flashing seams must be overlapped correctly and an adequate amount of sealant placed in between the overlap area to ensure proper waterproofing at the ell flashing transition area. Ell flashing seams were separating and in need of additional sealant. The correct way to repair this area is to replace the flashing with new. That is the only way to ensure the flashing detail area will not leak.

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Pitch Transition not flashed
Pitch Transition not Flashed

Whenever two different roof pitches transition a specially designed flashing is needed to bridge the slope change. This roof does not have the correct flashing and is relying on sealant to disallow seepage. Over time the sealant will deteriorate and allow leaks. The pitch transition on your roof does not have any flashing in it. Eventually the roofing materials and mastic used to seal this area will cause interior damages.

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Pan Roof Tie-In not Correct

Aluminum structures are inexpensive and easy to install. They often add value to a building by providing additional usable space. The roofing system is typically a pan or super-pan type made of aluminum and coated white. Insulation is sometimes used to help insulate and dampen rain patter. Pan roofs are large and lightweight. They are often fastened directly to the fascia board of a germinate structure and sealed with a simple bead of silicone caulk. During even light winds the entire structure moves causing the caulk bead to break and open and area for water to penetrate causing seepage at the tie-in and along the ribs. Since the caulking will not reseal it is our suggestion that a transition membrane be used to cover the tie-in area as would be installed on a normal flat roof tie-in. This will prevent water seepage and stop the fascia board from rotting.

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Tile roof cemented
Tile Roof Cemented

Before roof tile adhesive and screw fasteners tile was installed using a single patty of mortar cement placed on the roof and the tile imbedded therein. Although installation techniques required each tile to be submerged in water prior to installation, this was rarely ever followed. Each tile was set in place and left to dry. Over time and movement the tile brakes loose from the mortar and does not re-adhere. The temporary solution is to lift each tile and spray roof tile adhesive under it to create a new bond. However, this is labor intensive. If not repaired, the roof tiles may easily dislodge and become airborne during a high wind event.

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Rake Tiles held with fasteners
Rake Tiles Held With Fasteners

To help improve the aesthetic look of tile roofs specifies occasionally request rake tiles to be installed at rake edges. Tile manufacturers have released technical bulletins warning of the potential danger arising from this practice. Rake tiles are installed with one or two nails and a small amount of mortar only. More than half of the eight-pound tile is hanging over the roof's edge providing a fall danger. A Cut Above Roofing does not recommend the installation of these tiles. Although it is not cost prohibitive to proactively remove the tiles, as repairs are made to the roof's edge, the tiles should not be reinstalled.

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Battens
Battens Causing Water Backup

When tile roof systems are installed on steep roof structures, 1"x2" wood baton strips are utilized to help hold the tiles in place during installation and provide a walk able surface. Some roofers use batons on all roofs because it keeps the tiles off of inferior underlayments. On roof pitches under 6:12 there isn't enough slope to prevent the water from sitting behind the batons and find the thousands of underlayment nail holes used to hold down the batons. It is also acceptable to nail down batons and then screw the tiles into the batons. This does not provide the intended wind uplift.

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No Eve riser installed
No Eve Riser Installed

Eve riser is used to prevent rodents and birds from nesting in the tile cells, to uplift the perimeter row of tile so it is the same level as the other rows and helps install by giving a guideline.

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Chipped Tile Corners

When installing tiles using nails and especially screws, an over turning of the fastener can put increased pressure on the tile's corners. Daily expansion and contraction causes the corner edges to chip off. There is no system issue with this occurrence except to know that more chips will likely happen. The clips can be repaired, if found.

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Off Set Not Correct
Offset Not Correct

Tiles are not a waterproofing material. When installed correctly, they do "shed" water. However, if installed on a flat roof, they would allow massive seepage. The way Tiles work is by their overlapping design. As the previous layer is covered by the next it creates a stair step water shed design, disallowing seepage. This stair step design also has a vertical component to it. If each row is not offset correctly, water may enter the system. This Immokalee roof does not have the proper offset and was installed "line on line", allowing water to travel under the system.

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Improper Fastener Type
Improper Fastener Type

When two different types of metals come in contact a chemical reaction occurs: Electrolysis uses moisture as catalysis at a molecular level to pass ions from one metal to the other. The process causes a deterioration of both metals similar to the effects of rust. Using the wrong type of fasteners causes a real concern due to the importance of the fastener itself. Electrolysis causes the fastener puncture to deteriorate and widen, allowing a water path and seepage. Incompatible fastener types were used and electrolysis is occurring.

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Flat Tie-In not Sealed Properly
Flat Tie-In not Sealed Properly

The junction between your pitch roof and the flat roof is called the "tie-in". This area is specifically important because there are two different roofing materials joining. Here is evidence from a Bonita Springs roof that the tie-in area is not sealed properly. It is also very important that the two roof systems have the correct flashing detail and extra sealant protection.

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No Sealant at Flashings
No Sealant at Flashings

Although flashings bridge transitions in the roof, when not sealed properly they are ineffective. Flashing is designed to turn corners and breaks in a roof, which tend to have more movement than other areas. If not sealed properly, these flashings do little to stop water from entering the roof system. Here are voids in the roof flashings where sealants were not applied correctly. This is allowing water to enter the flashing detail area. This can be repaired with minimal expense.

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Boot lapped/sealed correctly
Boot Lapped/Sealed Correctly

As with all rooftop objects it is important that proper water flow and installation are considered. Flashing that is not layered correctly and sealant applied in the right junction areas allow water seepage. The boot flange on this Marcos Island roof was not installed correctly with the proper overlap procedure. Sealant has done a good job covering up the installation error, but is now showing signs of deterioration. Adding sealant may prevent seepage temporarily but is not a roof cycle solution. The boot should be replaced and installed correctly.

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Ell Flashing not sealed properly
Ell Flashing Not Sealed Properly

Ell flashing bridges the transition from the roof's surface and a wall or upright surface such as a curb. Ell flashing has not been sealed properly and the shingles are pealing back from the flashing allowing seepage. This can be correctly by removing the area and installing mastic sealant correctly. New membrane may need to be installed in this area. Also, if the ell flashing cannot be cleaned or has too many old fastener holes in it, the entire flashings detail area may need to be replaced.

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Ell Flashing Behind Wall Surface

Ell flashing is designed to bridge the roof to wall transition and allow for protection against water intrusion. Water which runs down the roof and wall is caught by the ell flashing and channeled to the roof's edge. It is important that the ell flashing's end be flared so it sticks out past the siding/stucco. This provides a direct path for water to flow behind the wall surface and into the building. Often this type of leak takes time to show and may only be noticeable in heavy rains and the wall needs to soak enough to be evident. The only correct way to repair this issue is to add a layer of membrane over the existing flashing that directs water flow out and away from the wall. Some roofers may suggest cutting out the old flashings and installing new. We do not suggest this, as it is impossible to replace the wall surfacing material and regain integrity.

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No wall cap/coupling
No Wall Cap/Coupling

Separation firewalls are designed to extend past the roof level and protect against spreading flames in the unlikely event of a fire. Many times these walls are simply stuccoed and painted. Over time the paint deteriorates, often at rates faster than walls due to the direct sunlight they receive, and allow moisture to seep into the wall's core. Under a maintenance program these wall caps can be coated using an elastomeric paint sealant. Other times it is best to use some type of wall cap to permately protect the wall top area. When moisture enters the wall it causes moisture bleed out and swelling. The additional moisture content is trapped and cannot evaporate causing further damages to fasteners, flashings and framing. The swelling can rust out concrete rebar and steel straps, both structural components of the wall. The correct way to fix this is to teat the wall top as a roof and install a roof system on it. This can be achieved by installing a metal coupling or a flat roof membrane with flashing on all four sides of the wall's top. The flat roof membrane is a better detail as it provides one continuous piece and protection without added maintenance.

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Counter flashing loose
Counter Flashing Loose

Counter flashing is metal flashing installed into the wall to protect the roof membrane from coming loose from the wall as it transitions from the roof area. Counter flashing can also be used in conjunction with ell flashing at the same detail area. The counter flashing, which has a concealed return flashing cut and installed into the wall, has come loose from the wall and is allowing water to enter. Counter flashing is an older flashing technique and requires constant maintenance by re-fastening and re-sealing the top wall cut to disallow seepage. This area should be repaired before interior damage occurs.

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Drip Edge with Flat Shelf
Drip Edge with Flat Shelf

Often associated with gutter installation and plumb fascia boards, perimeter drip edge flashings can create a shelf or ledge about three inches from the roofs edge. This shelf creates a flat roof area at the roof's perimeter. Since this Bonita Springs roof system is not a flat roof, the perimeter flashings are not designed to allow for sitting water. During light rains and morning dew water seeps under the roof system and deteriorates the perimeter decking sub-fascia board and fascia board. This can be resealed as a temporary fix, but should be replaced for a more perminate measure.

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Duro-Loc Installed
Duro-Loc Installed

Duro-Loc is a local contractor who designed a tile roof coating as a "quick-fix" to existing tile roof systems to provide an aesthetically pleasing roof color. By filling all gaps between tiles and then coating the roof with paint the Duro-Loc company claims this is a new roof. However, there is no code approval for this technique and has caused serious damage to roofs. By filling the entire tile gaps and then sealing the roof there is no way the tiles can expand and contract with normal daily thermal shock. The monolithic layer transfers movement onto the roof's underlayment and in the structure itself. We have seen these treated roofs rapidly deteriorate and allow seepage throughout the entire roof in as little as a few months. The only way to elevate this issue is to replace the roof. We do not recommend recoating the system, as recommended by Duro-Loc, as it will only exacerbate the problems. (A Cut Above Roofing has gathered customer testimonials who have asked us to pass this information on to others as a "buyer-be-aware".

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No ridge anchor installed
No Ridge Anchor Installed

Developed by a local manufacturer, Dan's Customer Sheet metal, a new-patented metal anchor ridge cap flashing was designed to increase the wind uplift of cap tiles. After the major hurricanes a few years ago everyone learned the vulnerability of tile roofs at the high and ridge areas. Tile ridge anchors are now required in all tile installations.

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Double #30 Underlayment
Double #30lb Underlayment

For a period of time the tile industry allowed a reduced underlayment requirement in an effort to complete against asphalt shingles, which offered an impressive look and has an increased useful life. During this time many roofs were installed with simple felt paper, without any type of sealant or secondary water barrier. We have seen an increased number of leaks with this type of underlayment.

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Concrete Eve Riser
Concrete Eve Riser

Eve riser is used to prevent rodents and birds from nesting in the tile cells. However, it is vitally important that weep holes allow water, which flows under the tile, to escape. In the past mortar was installed to perform this function. During installation the technician would simply use a wooden dowel or furrow to create the weep hole. Too often this hole is made higher than the roofline or not at all. This prevents water from escaping correctly and causes perimeter underlayment deterioration. Often this is the first area on a tile roof to cause seepage. Today's roofs use a specially designed metal flashing with pre-punched holes. Your roof's mortar eve riser is showing signs of underlayment damage and may be allowing seepage.

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Flat Roof Repair & Restore Designed in the 1970's as an alternative to tar & gravel roof systems, Modified membrane is named accordingly due to the way asphalt is blown and additives modify its molecular makeup producing a stronger product than traditional asphalt. Although this roof system has a high rate of failure it is widely used due to price.

Flat Repair and Restore Overview


Slipping
Slipping: Delaminating / Sliding

This Torch Down Modified roof membrane is delaminating and sliding. This is caused by improper fastening. On roofs with a slight pitch it's required to fasten each row. Without lifting up every row and breaking the sealing asphalt seams, it's impossible to tell if the problem is consistent throughout the entire roof or just the areas visible. Generally, if the same crew or person installed the roof, the problem is consistent. There's a good possibility this roof will continue to experience this problem in the future, especially after high wind events.

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Ponding Water
Ponding Water

A code violation and warranty exclusion on all asphalt based roof systems, ponding water is when water sits on a roof for more than 48 hours without being evaporated or running off naturally. Water ponding breaks down asphalt, which is an oil-based product. Think of potholes in the road. Or, imagine a pot of boiling water when cooking. If oil were added, it would stay on top of the water. On a roof the opposite effect happens. The oil is trapped at the bottom and due to it's natural properties, tried to rise to the top causing oil migration. Oil migration when the oil and waterproofing properties of a roofing product are pulled out, causing the roof system to break down.

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Improper Fastener Type

When two different types of metals come in contact a chemical reaction occurs: Electrolysis uses moisture as catalysis at a molecular level to pass ions from one metal to the other. The process causes a deterioration of both metals similar to the effects of rust. Using the wrong type of fasteners causes a real concern due to the importance of the fastener itself. Electrolysis causes the fastener puncture to deteriorate and widen, allowing a water path and seepage. Incompatible fastener types were used and electrolysis is occurring

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Flat Tie-In not Sealed Properly
Flat Tie-In not Sealed Properly

The junction between your pitch roof and the flat roof is called the "tie-in". This area is specifically important because there are two different roofing materials joining. This Fort Myers Beach roof shows evidence that the tie-in area is not sealed properly. It is also very important that the two roof systems have the correct flashing detail and extra sealant protection.

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No Sealant at Flashings
No Sealant at Flashings

Although flashings bridge transitions in the roof, when not sealed properly they are ineffective. Flashing is designed to turn corners and breaks in a roof, which tend to have more movement than other areas. If not sealed properly, these flashings do little to stop water from entering the roof system. This is allowing water to enter the flashing detail area. This can be repaired with minimal expense.

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Boot lapped/sealed correctly
Boot Lapped/Sealed Correctly

As with all rooftop objects it is important that proper water flow and installation are considered. Flashing that is not layered correctly and sealant applied in the right junction areas allow water seepage. The boot flange was not installed correctly with the proper overlap procedure. Sealant has done a good job covering up the installation error, but is now showing signs of deterioration. Adding sealant may prevent seepage temporarily but is not a roof cycle solution. The boot should be replaced and installed correctly.

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Ell Flashing not sealed properly
Ell Flashing not Sealed Properly

Ell flashing bridges the transition from the roof's surface and a wall or upright surface such as a curb. On this Bonita Springs roof the ell flashing has not been sealed properly and the shingles are pealing back from the flashing allowing seepage. This can be correctly by removing the area and installing mastic sealant correctly. New membrane may need to be installed in this area. Also, if the ell flashing cannot be cleaned or has too many old fastener holes in it, the entire flashings detail area may need to be replaced.

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Ell Flashing Behind Wall Surface
Ell Flashing Behind Wall Surface

Ell flashing is designed to bridge the roof to wall transition and allow for protection against water intrusion. Water which runs down the roof and wall is caught by the ell flashing and channeled to the roof's edge. It is important that the ell flashing's end be flared so it sticks out past the siding/stucco. On this roof the installers did not flare the flange end and it terminates behind the siding/stucco. This provides a direct path for water to flow behind the wall surface and into the building. Often this type of leak takes time to show and may only be noticeable in heavy rains and the wall needs to soak enough to be evident. The only correct way to repair this issue is to add a layer of membrane over the existing flashing that directs water flow out and away from the wall. Some roofers may suggest cutting out the old flashings and installing new. We do not suggest this, as it is impossible to replace the wall surfacing material and regain integrity.

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Pitch Transition not flashed
Pitch Transition not Flashed

Whenever two different roof pitches transition a specially designed flashing is needed to bridge the slope change. This Fort Myers Beach roof does not have the correct flashing and is relying on sealant to disallow seepage. Over time the sealant will deteriorate and allow leaks. The pitch transition on this roof does not have any flashing in it. Eventually the roofing materials and mastic used to seal this area will cause interior damages.

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Pan Roof Tie-In not correct
Pan Roof Tie-In Not Correct

Aluminum structures are inexpensive and easy to install. They often add value to a building by providing additional usable space. The roofing system is typically a pan or super-pan type made of aluminum and coated white. Insulation is sometimes used to help insulate and dampen rain patter. Pan roofs are large and lightweight. They are often fastened directly to the fascia board of a germinate structure and sealed with a simple bead of silicone caulk. During even light winds the entire structure moves causing the caulk bead to break and open and area for water to penetrate causing seepage at the tie-in and along the ribs. Since the caulking will not reseal it is our suggestion that a transition membrane be used to cover the tie-in area as would be installed on a normal flat roof tie-in. This will prevent water seepage and stop the fascia board from rotting.

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Torn/Cracked/Broken Surface

As a roof expands and contracts the roof system moves. This is a daily occurrence and is associated with Thermal Shock. During movement the membrane binds against each other. Sometimes a tree branch or flying debris may impact the roof causing damage. 3rd party damage is another issue. As people walk across the roof they can cause damage. The membrane on this roof has been damaged. Since this leaves the underlayment showing, it is our recommendation these areas are repaired.

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Fasteners
Improper Number of Fasteners

Modified membranes are designed to be installed over an approved surfacing fastened to specific guidelines. If modified membranes are installed over a surface without the proper fastening the manufacturer's warranty is voided and the roof assembly is out of code. This also leaves the roof susceptible to roof blow-off in the event of strong winds. After Hurricane Andrew in 1992 our code system was completely redesigned. In 1994, when this new code system was introduced, the requirements became much more strict. They increased again after hurricane Charley left hundreds of modified roofs sitting in the street as the entire system uplifted all in one layer. However, most of the good roofing contractors go above code and install more fasteners than required due to lessons learned after the storms.

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Fastener Uplifting
Fasteners Uplifting

"High nails" were found on this Immokalee roof. During roof underlayment installation it's easy for installers to forget about proper pressure setting on their nail guns. In most cases too many nailers are hooked up to a low volume compressor and the air supply is not sufficient to drive each fastener fully. At time of installation only the severe "high nails" are noticeable. When the modified membrane seals to itself a tight bond is formed. "High nails" begin to protrude through the top surface of membrane causing rust and seepage.

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Backwater Laps
Backwater Laps

When installing a roof system it is important to always start at the lowest point and proceed upward toward the roof's peak. This ensures that each layer of materials overlaps the previous. Even on flat roofs, this principle is important. As water travels, on a pitch or on a flat roof, if two seams are lapped in backwards a backwater lap occurs. This can "cup" water and force in under the layers, causing leaks.

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Valley Metal Buckling

Valley metal is installed by crimping the valley center, fastening the entire length of both edges and then applying mastic to cover the valley metal edge and fasteners. When valley metal is not properly pressed, fastened and/or sealed it causes buckling and waving. Since a valley is designed to channel water between two pitch areas a valley receives more water flow than any other part of the roof. Valley metal buckling disrupts the immediate flow of water and creates water vortices, a circular flow of water that leads to roof seepage.

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Vent not Lapped/Sealed Correctly

As with all rooftop objects it is important that proper water flow and installation are considered. Flashing that is not layered correctly and sealant applied in the right junction areas allow water seepage. The vent flange was not installed correctly with the proper overlap procedure. Sealant has done a good job covering up the installation error on this Naples roof, but is now showing signs of deterioration. Adding sealant may prevent seepage temporarily but is not a roof cycle solution. The vent should be replaced and installed correctly.

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No Ell Flashing Installed

Whenever a roof surface meets a vertical surface ell flashing is needed to bridge the transition and protect from seepage. Although sealant may have helped avoid leaks, over time sealant breaks down. The correct technique is to install ell flashing here.

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Flashing seams separating
Flashing Seams Separating

Flashing seams must be overlapped correctly and an adequate amount of sealant placed in between the overlap area to ensure proper waterproofing at the ell flashing transition area. Here we found ell flashing seams were separating and in need of additional sealant. The correct way to repair this area is to replace the flashing with new. That is the only way to ensure the flashing detail area will not leak.

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Counter flashing loose
Counter Flashing Loose

Counter flashing is metal flashing installed into the wall to protect the roof membrane from coming loose from the wall as it transitions from the roof area. Counter flashing can also be used in conjunction with ell flashing at the same detail area. On this Estero roof the counter flashing, which has a concealed return flashing cut and installed into the wall, has come loose from the wall and is allowing water to enter. Counter flashing is an older flashing technique and requires constant maintenance by re-fastening and re-sealing the top wall cut to disallow seepage. This area should be repaired before interior damage occurs.

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Granules Loss
Granules Loss

Asphalt does not hold up to direct UV exposure. Modified membrane use small white colored stone chips called granules to protect the asphalt from environmental elements and to provide an esthetically pleasing look. Over time these granules wear off. When this occurs the asphalt surfacing starts to break down causing a downward turn in the roof's life. This is the reason why it is not recommended to pressure clean a modified roof. Pressure dislodges the granules from their asphalt embedment. It is also important to keep overhanging trees trimmed so they don't brush off granules.

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Offset Not Correct
Offset Not Correct

The way membrane roofs work is by their overlapping design. As the previous layer is covered by the next it creates stair step water shed design, disallowing seepage and water backslaps. This stair step design also has a vertical component to it. If each row is not offset correctly, water may enter the system through "T" joints. It is standard practice to stagger each row of membrane.

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Fastener installation
Improper Fastener Installation

It is important that all fasteners are installed perpendicular to the roof's surface and driven in at a perfect 90-degree angle. On a Fort Myers roof I found areas where the fasteners were not driven straight in and the fastener heads are lifted slightly. Over time this can and will damage the roof system and allow seepage.

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No Starter Strip
No Starter Strip

Membrane Starter strip is a narrow strip of membrane at the perimeter designed to seal perimeter flashings and prevent wind uplift. When membrane starter strip is omitted or not installed correctly strong winds have an opportunity to lift the first row of membrane and cause the "domino effect". This has led to entire roofs being blown of during hurricanes. The starter strip on this Captiva Island roof was not installed correctly. Proper sealant was not installed. As a temporary measure the first row can be lifted and sealed. When it comes time to replace the roof make sure your contractor uses specially designed starter-strip membrane to keep your roof's guarantee and prevent system blow-off.

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Flashing Rusting
Flashing Rusting

Steel metal flashings exposed to the elements can rust over time. Today's flashings are made of galvanized metal, a process that protects the steel core from rusting. Rust cannot be simply sealed over, as it will continue to grow as seen on this Sanibel Island roof. The rust needs to be cut out and a new flashing installed, then sealed properly. Since the rust is open to the surface and flashings are vital to the integrity of your roof system. We suggest repairing the rusted flashing areas before seepage causes structural damage.

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Gable End Flashing Not Correct
Gable End Flashing Not Correct

Steel metal flashings exposed to the elements can rust over time. Today's flashings are made of galvanized metal, a process that protects the steel core from rusting. An example of rusted flashings was found on this Marcos Island roof. Rust cannot be simply sealed over, as it will continue to grow. The rust needs to be cut out and a new flashing installed, then sealed properly. Since the rust is open to the surface and flashings are vital to the integrity of your roof system, we suggest repairing the rusted flashing areas before seepage causes structural damage.

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Plastic Boots Used
Plastic Boots Used

As you know, plastic typically dries out rather quickly in our environment. The sun's UV rays cause oil migration much the same as it does to exposed asphalt. On this Naples roof a plastic stack flashing was used to seal the pipe. A gap between the pipe and surrounding flashing is visible and allowing seepage. This boot should be removed and replaced with a new lead boot.

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Ell Flashing uplifting
Ell Flashing Uplifting

Ell flashing should be nailed every six inches on center. Not enough fasteners were used and the sealant has deteriorated. I suggest sealing the underside of the ell flashing and installing the correct number of fasteners as specified by code. On this Sanibel Island roof another layer of membrane should be installed to cover the ell-flashing flange and provide a more aesthetically pleasing transition area.

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No Wall Cap/Coupling

Separation firewalls are designed to extend past the roof level and protect against spreading flames in the unlikely event of a fire. Many times these walls are simply stuccoed and painted. Over time the paint deteriorates, often at rates faster than walls due to the direct sunlight they receive, and allow moisture to seep into the wall's core. Under a maintenance program these wall caps can be coated using an elastomeric paint sealant. Other times it is best to use some type of wall cap to permately protect the wall top area. When moisture enters the wall it causes moisture bleed out and swelling. The additional moisture content is trapped and cannot evaporate causing further damages to fasteners, flashings and framing. The swelling can rust out concrete rebar and steel straps, both structural components of the wall. The correct way to fix this is to treat the wall top as a roof and install a roof system on it. This can be achieved by installing a metal coupling or a flat roof membrane with flashing on all four sides of the wall's top. The flat roof membrane is a better detail as it provides one continuous piece and protection without added maintenance.

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Fair/Unfair Metals Touching
Fair/Unfair Metals Touching

When two different types of metals, fair and unfair as they are called, come in contact a chemical reaction occurs. Electrolysis uses moisture as catalysis at a molecular level to pass ions from one metal to the other. The process causes a deterioration of both metals similar to the effects of rust. Using two different types of metal causes electrolysis and the rapid breakdown of metal.

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Fiberglass Intermat Showing
Fiberglass Intermat Showing

Modified membrane construction starts with a fiberglass intermat. During production the fiberglass intermat is saturated with asphalt and dried repeatedly until the desired thickness is achieved. This intermat is not a waterproofing layer but is necessary to keep the membrane from cracking and separating. Over time the membrane surface wears down. Eventually the intermat will become exposed. It is generally accepted that when this occurs it is time to replace the roof. Without the fiberglass intermat holding the membrane construction together the membrane can no longer withstand thermal shock (expansion and contraction) and will crack, possibly allowing seepage.

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Flat: Sprayed Polyurethane Foam

Sprayed Polyurethane Foam (SPF) roofs are new to the lineup and are designed primarily as an insulator, not a waterproofing roof system. The top applied coating is the true waterproofing agent and must be recoated yearly to keep the system's integrity.

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torn cracked broken surface
Torn/Cracked/Broken Surface

As a roof expands and contracts the roof system moves. This is a daily occurrence and is associated with Thermal Shock. During movement the SPF binds against each other. Sometimes a tree branch or flying debris may impact the roof causing damage. 3rd party damage is another issue. As people walk across the roof they can cause damage. Birds are a particular problem with SPF roofs. They love to poke holes and nest in the surface. The SPF Foam on roof has been damaged. Since this leaves the underlayment showing, it is our recommendation these areas are repaired.

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Roof Recovered Offset Not Correct
Roof Recovered Offset Not Correct

SPF Foam is not a waterproofing material. When installed correctly, with a heavy waterproof coating and a slight pitch, it does "shed" water. However, SPF foam has millions of small holes called air pockets created at the time of installation. These holes give SPF its insulating properties. As the coating breaks down and allows water into the system the moisture is trapped and causes seepage. We do not suggest spending money on yearly coatings. It is advisable to save funds and replace the SPF roof with a certified roofing system.

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Improper Number of Fasteners

SPF roofs are designed to be installed over an approved surfacing fastened to specific guidelines. If SPF roof is installed over a surface without the proper fastening the manufacturer's warranty is voided and the roof assembly is out of code. This also leaves the roof susceptible to roof blow-off in the event of strong winds. After Hurricane Andrew in 1992 our code system was completely redesigned. In 1994, when this new code system was introduced, the requirements became much more strict. They increased again after hurricane Charley left chunks of SPF roofs sitting in the street as the entire system uplifted. However, most of the good roofing contractors go above code and install more fasteners than required due to lessons learned after the storms prior to installing the SPF system.

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Flat: Tar & Gravel

Tar & Gravel roofs have been around for centuries. Constructed by layering asphalt and felt then finishing the system with a heavy coat of asphalt and gravel, these systems are used primarily on large commercial flat roof area. Tar & Gravel usage has been replaced with more effective modern systems.

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Torn/Cracked/Broken Surface
Torn/Cracked/Broken Surface

As a roof expands and contracts the roof system moves. This is a daily occurrence and is associated with Thermal Shock. During movement the membrane binds against each other. Sometimes a tree branch or flying debris may impact the roof causing damage. 3rd party damage is another issue. As people walk across the roof they can cause damage. The membrane on this roof has been damaged. Since this leaves the underlayment showing, it is our recommendation these areas are repaired.

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Fiberglass Intermat Showing
Fiberglass Intermat Showing

Tar & Gravel roof construction starts with layers of fiberglass felt paper and asphalt. This intermat is not a waterproofing layer until it is layered with asphalt and more fiberglasses felt paper. Over time the membrane surface wears down. Eventually the fiberglass felt will become exposed. It is generally accepted that when this occurs it is time to replace the roof. Without the fiberglass intermat holding the roof's waterproofing construction together the membrane can no longer withstand thermal shock (expansion and contraction) and will crack, possibly allowing seepage.

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Shingle Roof Repair & Restore

Asphalt fiberglass shingle roof systems have been around for over 100 years, protecting buildings, providing an esthetically pleasing appearance and adding value to homes. More recently numerous new profiles have become available providing a lifetime guarantee, increase wind resistance and provide 100% labor and material warranty coverage.

Shingle Repair and Restore Overview


Slipping: Delaminating / Sliding

Shingles may delaminate and slide. This is caused by improper fastening. Shingles are designed to be nailed in a specific area, increasing wind resistance and ensuring that both parts of the shingle are attached to the roof. Today's shingles are constructed in two parts. The "base" and the "dragon tooth" overlay. When fasteners do not penetrate both parts of the shingle the base can come apart, especially on high pitch roofs.

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Offset not correct
Offset Not Correct

Shingles are not a waterproofing material. When installed correctly, they do "shed" water. However, if installed on a flat roof, they would allow massive seepage. The way shingles work is by their overlapping design. As the previous layer is covered by the next it creates a stair step water shed design, disallowing seepage. This stair step design also has a vertical component to it. If each row is not offset correctly, water may enter the system.

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Improper Fastener Type
Improper Fastener Type

When two different types of metals come in contact a chemical reaction occurs: Electrolysis uses moisture as catalysis at a molecular level to pass ions from one metal to the other. The process causes a deterioration of both metals similar to the effects of rust. Using the wrong type of fasteners causes a real concern due to the importance of the fastener itself. Electrolysis causes the fastener puncture to deteriorate and widen, allowing a water path and seepage. The photos show incompatible fastener types were used and electrolysis is occurring.

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No Starter Strip
No Starter Strip

Starter strip shingles are used to seal the first row of perimeter shingles and prevent wind uplift. When starter strip shingles are omitted or not installed correctly strong winds have an opportunity to lift the first row of shingles and cause the "domino effect". This has led to entire roofs being blown of during hurricanes. The photos show where starter strip shingles were not installed correctly on this Fort Myers roof. Proper sealant was not installed. As a temporary measure the first row can be lifted and sealed. When it comes time to replace your roof make sure your contractor uses specially designed starter-strip shingles to keep your roof's guarantee and prevent system blow-off

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Punctures in Roof
Punctures In Roof

Flying debris, animals and old rooftop items can all cause holes in the roof. Punctures are major concern because there are no roofing materials protecting the building from water intrusion.

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No Sealant at Flashings

Although flashings bridge transitions in the roof, when not sealed properly they are ineffective. Flashing is designed to turn corners and breaks in a roof, which tend to have more movement than other areas. If not sealed properly, these flashings do little to stop water from entering the roof system. This is allowing water to enter the flashing detail area.

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Boot Lapped seal
Boot Lapped / Sealed Correctly

As with all roof-top objects it is important that proper water flow and installation are considered. Flashing that is not layered correctly and sealant applied in the right junction areas allow water seepage. The boot flange was not installed correctly with the proper overlap procedure on this Sanibel Island roof. Sealant has done a good job covering up the installation error, but is now showing signs of deterioration. Adding sealant may prevent seepage temporarily but is not a roof cycle solution. The boot should be replaced and installed correctly.

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Ell Flashing not sealed properly
Ell Flashing Not Sealed Properly

Ell flashing bridges the transition from the roof's surface and a wall or upright surface such as a curb. The ell flashing has not been sealed properly and the shingles are pealing back from the flashing allowing seepage. This can be correctly by removing the area and installing mastic sealant correctly. New membrane may need to be installed in this area. Also, if the ell flashing cannot be cleaned or has too many old fastener holes in it, the entire flashings detail area may need to be replaced.

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Ell Flashing Behind Wall Surface
Ell Flashing Behind Wall Surface

Ell flashing is designed to bridge the roof to wall transition and allow for protection against water intrusion. Water which runs down the roof and wall is caught by the ell flashing and channeled to the roof's edge. It is important that the ell flashing's end be flared so it sticks out past the siding/stucco. On this Marcos Island roof the installers did not flare the flange end and it terminates behind the siding/stucco. This provides a direct path for water to flow behind the wall surface and into the building. Often this type of leak takes time to show and may only be noticeable in heavy rains and the wall needs to soak enough to be evident. The only correct way to repair this issue is to add a layer of membrane over the existing flashing that directs water flow out and away from the wall. Some roofers may suggest cutting out the old flashings and installing new. We do not suggest this, as it is impossible to replace the wall surfacing material and regain integrity.

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No wall cap/coupling
No Wall Cap / Coupling

Separation fire walls are designed to extend past the roof level and protect against spreading flames in the unlikely event of a fire. Many times these walls are simply stuccoed and painted. Over time the paint deteriorates, often at rates faster than walls due to the direct sunlight they receive, and allow moisture to seep into the wall's core. Under a maintenance program these wall caps can be coated using an elastomeric paint sealant. Other times it is best to use some type of wall cap to permately protect the wall enclose area. When moisture enters the wall it causes moisture bleed out and swelling. The additional moisture content is trapped and cannot evaporate causing further damages to fasteners, flashings and framing. The swelling can rust out concrete rebar and steel straps, both structural components of the wall. The correct way to fix this is to treat the wall top as a roof and install a roof system on it. This can be achieved by installing a metal coupling or a flat roof membrane with flashing on all four sides of the wall's top. The flat roof membrane is a better detail as it provides one continuous piece and protection without added maintenance.

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Flashing
Counter Flashing Loose

Counter flashing is metal flashing installed into the wall to protect the roof membrane from coming loose from the wall as it transitions from the roof area. Counter flashing can also be used in conjunction with ell flashing at the same detail area. On this Estero roof the counter flashing, which has a concealed return flashing cut and installed into the wall, has come loose from the wall and is allowing water to enter. Counter flashing is an older flashing technique and requires constant maintenance by re-fastening and re-sealing the top wall cut to disallow seepage. This area should be repaired before interior damage occurs.

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Drip Edge with Flat Shelf
Drip Edge with Flat Shelf

Often associated with gutter installation and plumb fascia boards, perimeter drip edge flashings can create a shelf or ledge about three inches from the roofs edge. This shelf creates a flat roof area at the roof's perimeter. Since this roof system is not a flat roof, the perimeter flashings are not designed to allow for sitting water. During light rains and morning dew water seeps under the roof system and deteriorates the perimeter decking sub-fascia board and fascia board. This can be resealed as a temporary fix, but should be replaced for a more germinate measure.

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Fiberglass Intermat Showing
Fiberglass Intermat Showing

Shingle construction starts with a fiberglass intermat. During production the fiberglass intermat is saturated with asphalt and dried repeatedly until the desired thickness is achieved. This intermat is not a waterproofing layer but is necessary to keep the shingle from cracking and separating. Over time the shingles surface wears down. Eventually the intermat will become exposed. It is generally accepted that when this occurs it is time to replace the roof. Without the fiberglass intermat holding the shingle construction together the shingle cannot longer withstand thermal shock (expansion and contraction) and will crack, possibly allowing seepage. You may want to consider replacing the roof at this time.

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Turbine vents not working
Turbine Vents Not Working

Turbines, or whirly birds, are not currently constructed to meet new hurricane codes. The manufacturer recommends removing the top and placing a cap placed over the base in the event a storm is approaching. Additionally, in a high wind, driven rain situation water enters the vent through the vent's "gills". We have found bearings to be a normal maintenance item as they wear out and the vent ceases to work properly. We recommend replacing this type of vent.

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Torn, Cracked, Broken
Torn/Cracked/Broken Surface

Often in high wind events we see the corners of shingles tear. This is common on contractor grade shingles. Sometimes a tree branch or flying debris may impact a shingle causing damage. 3rd party damage is another issue. As people walk across the roof they can cause damage. Damaged shingle leave the underlayment showing, accelerating roof wear.

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Fasteners
Improper Number of Fasteners

Shingles are designed to be installed using special wide head roofing nails. Each shingle has a designated "nail line". If shingles are fastened outside the nail line the manufacturer's warranty is voided and the roof assembly is out of code. This also leaves the roof susceptible to roof blow-off in the event of strong winds. After Hurricane Andrew in 1992 our code system was completely redesigned. In 1994, when this new code system was introduced, the requirement was 6 nails per shingle. It has since been reduced to 4 nails per shingles. However, most of the good roofing contractors still install 6 and in order to achieve the enhanced wind warranty, 6 nails per shingle must be installed.

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Fastener Uplifting
Fasteners Uplifting

During roof installation it's easy for installers to forget about proper pressure setting on their nail guns. In most cases too many nailers are hooked up to a low volume compressor and the air supply is not sufficient to drive each fastener fully. At time of installation only the severe "high nails" are noticeable. When the asphalt shingle seals to itself a tight bond is formed. "High nails" begin to protrude through the top surface of shingles. Rusting and seepage can occur. It is also possible for the roof's underlayment fasteners to uplift.

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Flat Tie-In not Sealed Properly

The junction between your pitch roof and the flat roof is called the "tie-in". This area is specifically important because there are two different roofing materials joining. It is also very important that the two roof systems have the correct flashing detail and extra sealant protection

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Inspection: Flashings

Flashings are the most important part of any roof system. Specially designed for their unique applications, flashings bridge transition areas and prevent seepage.

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Valley Metal Buckling
Valley Metal Buckling

Valley metal is installed by crimping the valley center, fastening the entire length of both edges and then applying mastic to cover the valley metal edge and fasteners. When valley metal is not properly pressed, fastened and/or sealed it causes buckling and waving. Since a valley is designed to channel water between two pitch areas a valley receives more water flow than any other part of the roof. Valley metal buckling disrupts the immediate flow of water and creates water vortices, a circular flow of water that leads to roof seepage.

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Vent
Vent Not Lapped / Sealed Correctly

As with all roof-top objects it is important that proper water flow and installation are considered. Flashing that is not layered correctly and sealant applied in the right junction areas allow water seepage. The vent flange on this Fort Myers Beach roof was not installed correctly with the proper overlap procedure. Sealant has done a good job covering up the installation error, but is now showing signs of deterioration. Adding sealant may prevent seepage temporarily but is not a roof cycle solution. The vent should be replaced and installed correctly.

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No Ell Flashing Installed
No Ell Flashing Installed

Whenever a roof surface meets a vertical surface ell flashing is needed to bridge the transition and protect from seepage. On this Immokalee roof we found no ell flashing was installed at this detail. Although sealant may have helped avoid leaks, over time sealant breaks down. The correct technique is to install ell flashing here.

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Fasteners in the valley
Fasteners In The Valley

Since a valley is designed to channel water between two pitch areas a valley receives more water flow than any other part of the roof. A standard installation guideline on all roof systems is to never install fasteners in the valley's center. Exposed valley fasteners disrupt the immediate flow of water. Because valleys are transition areas and absorb building movement, fasteners installed in the valley center uplift and allow water seepage. The only way to properly repair this issue is by replacing the valley flashing.

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Off Ridge Vents not Angled
Off Ridge Vents Not Angled

Vents are installed on the roof to allow for attic airflow. These vents should not be longer than four feet in length and should be installed at an angle. As water flows down the roof it often is blocked behind the vent creating a small area of water ponding. Ponding water is water sitting on any asphalt roofing material longer than 48 hours without run-off or evaporation. As the water sits it magnifies the sun's rays and works on breaking down the sealant and underlayment used to seal the vent to the roof. The correct way to fix this issue is to install a new vent. These vents were not installed with the correct angle and water is ponding behind them.

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Fair/Unfair Metals Touching
Fair/Unfair Metals Touching

When two different types of metals, fair and unfair as they are called, come in contact a chemical reaction occurs. Electrolysis uses moisture as catalysis at a molecular level to pass ions from one metal to the other. The process causes a deterioration of both metals similar to the effects of rust. Using two different types of metal causes electrolysis and the rapid breakdown of metal. Electrolysis is occurring on this roof.

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Granules Loss
Granules Loss

Asphalt does not hold up to direct UV exposure. Shingles use small colored stone chips called granules to protect the asphalt from environmental elements and to provide an esthetically pleasing look. Over time these granules wear off. When this occurs the asphalt surfacing starts to break down causing a downward turn in the shingle's life. This is the reason why it is not recommended to pressure clean a shingle roof. Pressure dislodges the granules from their asphalt embedment. We have found improper ventilation to be a major cause of premature granule loss. It is also important to keep overhanging trees trimmed so they don't brush off granules. Here on a Fort Myers Beach roof is an example of granule loss and the starting of shingle breakdown. This is a sign that roof replacement is near.

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Shingles Curling
Shingles Curling

Asphalt, an oil based product, is resistant to water and used in a wide range of waterproofing areas. Shingles are primarily asphalt in construction. Asphalt does dry-out over time. This process is called oil migration. As with most natural elements, when asphalt dries it shrinks. The shingle's fiberglass intermat tries to prevent the shrinkage. This event is visible on this Immokalee roof. We typically find shingle's corners curling. Improper ventilation accelerates the curling process. If shingle curling is occurring on your roof, roof replacement is near.

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Roof Recover
Roof Recovered

Often used as a way to escape the costs associated with replacing flashings, installing new underlayments and saving labor for tear-off shingle recovers offer an option. We have found shingle recovers cause rapid wear of the primary roof system as they trap moisture and "bake" the original roof. Without replacing flashings, there is no way to ensure a watertight installation. We do not recommend shingle recover applications.

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Fastener installation
Improper Fastener Installation

It is important that all fasteners are installed perpendicular to the roof's surface and driven in at a perfect 90 degree angle. Shown are areas where the fasteners were not driven straight in and the fastener heads are lifted slightly. Over time this can and will damage the roof system and allow seepage.

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Blown Off Cap
Blown Off Cap

The most susceptible area on a roof to wind damage is the cap. Cap shingles are used to cover the hip and ridge areas of two adjoining decks. Most installers simply use a 20-years 3-tab shingle, cut into pieces and placed in this area to act as cap and save money. Each manufacturer makes specially formulated cap shingles with aggressive adhesive to prevent blow-off. When it is time to replace the roof ask your contractor to use special Hip & Ridge Cap shingles made to withstand high winds, keep the shingle system guarantee and match the field shingles.

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Backwater Laps
Backwater Laps

When installing a roof system it is important to always start at the lowest point and proceed upward toward the roof's peak. This ensures that each layer of materials overlaps the previous. Even on flat roofs, this principle is important. As water travels, on a pitch or on a flat roof, if two seams are lapped in backwards a backwater lap occurs. This can "cup" water and force in under the layers, causing leaks.

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Flashing Rusting
Flashing Rusting

Steel metal flashings exposed to the elements can rust over time. Today's flashings are made of galvanized metal, a process that protects the steel core from rusting. I have found rusted flashings on this Captiva Island roof. Rust cannot be simply sealed over, as it will continue to grow. The rust needs to be cut out and a new flashing installed, then sealed properly. Since the rust is open to the surface and flashings are vital to the integrity of your roof system, we suggest repairing the rusted flashing areas before seepage causes structural damage.

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Gable Flashing
Gable End Flashing Not Correct

Gable ends are where a valley terminates into a roof's surface, rather than running the entire length to the roof's edge. They are quite common and add to the roof's design. However, if not correctly detailed with flashings and sealants, the gable end is an area of concern. With the valley channeling large amounts of water to the gable end area there is an increased chance of seepage. In fact, it is A Cut Above Roofing's #1 repair area on all roof systems. Adding more sealant may stop the seepage for a year or so, but the only correct way to fix this area is by removing the flashings and installing them correctly. This will minimize the dependence on sealants, which will deteriorate over time.

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Plastic Boots Used
Plastic Boots Used

As you know, plastic typically dries out rather quickly in our environment. The sun's UV rays cause oil migration much the same as it does to exposed asphalt. In this case a plastic stack flashing was used to seal the pipe. A gap between the pipe and surrounding flashing is visible and allowing seepage. The boot on this Estero roof should be removed and replaced with a new lead boot.

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Ell Flashing uplifting
Ell Flashing Uplifting

Ell flashing should be nailed every six inches on center. On a Bonita Sprints roof I found the ell flashing uplifted. Not enough fasteners were used and the sealant has deteriorated. We suggest sealing the underside of the ell flashing and installing the correct number of fasteners as specified by code. Another layer of membrane or shingle should be installed to cover the ell-flashing flange and provide a more aesthetically pleasing transition area.

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Flashing seams separating
Flashing Seams Separating

Flashing seams must be overlapped correctly and an adequate amount of sealant placed in between the overlap area to ensure proper waterproofing at the ell flashing transition area. Ell flashing seams were separating here and in need of additional sealant. The correct way to repair this area is to replace the flashing with new. That is the only way to ensure the flashing detail area will not leak.

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Pitch Transition not flashed
Pitch Transition Not Flashed

Whenever two different roof pitches transition a specially designed flashing is needed to bridge the slope change. This Naples roof does not have the correct flashing and is relying on sealant to disallow seepage. Over time the sealant will deteriorate and allow leaks. The pitch transition on your roof does not have any flashing in it. Eventually the roofing materials and mastic used to seal this area will cause interior damages.

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Pan Roof Tie-In not correct
Pan Roof Tie-In Not Correct

Aluminum structures are inexpensive and easy to install. They often add value to a building by providing additional usable space. The roofing system is typically a pan or super-pan type made of aluminum and coated white. Insulation is sometimes used to help insulate and dampen rain patter. Pan roofs are large and lightweight. They are often fastened directly to the fascia board of a germinate structure and sealed with a simple bead of silicone caulk. During even light winds the entire structure moves causing the caulk bead to break and open and area for water to penetrate causing seepage at the tie-in and along the ribs. Since the caulking will not reseal it is our suggestion that a transition membrane be used to cover the tie-in area as would be installed on a normal flat roof tie-in. This will prevent water seepage and stop the fascia board from rotting.

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Aluminum Ridge Vent w/NailsGranules Loss
Aluminum Ridge Vent w/Nails

Aluminum ridge vents are installed across the crown of the roof to allow ventilation. Although the vent manufactures allow these vents to be installed with aluminum nails, the nails they provide are not long enough to penetrate the decking as required by the Tennessee Building Code. Most roofers will simply use the same nails as they use for installing shingles. However, these nails are galvanized and the vents are aluminum, fair and unfair metals, which lead to electrolysis. We suggest these nails be sealed and screws with special EPDM gaskets at the screw's head be installed to prevent vent blow-off, self seal the fasteners and prevent further electrolysis.

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Valley
Shingle "W" Valley

There are three main ways to install a shingle valley. First is the correct way, by fully lacing the low side plane through the valley so a full shingle is in the valley protecting the flashing and then the second plane is installed and cut straight with the valley center. Second it a full lace valley where both sides are laced through the valley. This causes "bridging" or uplifting of the shingles and leads to seepage. Third, which is both least expensive and allows the most number of leaks, is by cutting the shingles before they lace through the valley by installing a "W" type valley metal. This is a major installation shortcut as it saves in both shingle and labor expense. However, the biggest issue with this type of installation is the seepage problems it causes. By cutting the shingles without lacing all the way through the only form of protection is a small bead of sealant on either side of the valley. On roof with a pitch over 5 in 12 the issue is more prevalent as the water jumps over the center valley ridge and is driven under the shingles. This Sanibel Island roof has been installed with an open valley and is showing signs of sealant breakdown, which may be allowing seepage.

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A Cut Above Roofing
Robert L Smith, Owner
Paron Road | Cookeville, Tennessee
Phone: (931-537-3542 | Mobile: (931) 261-3685

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